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Words per minute (WPM) is a measure of typing speed, commonly used in recruitment.

Words per minute is also a measure of a telegraph or amateur radio operator`s Morse code speed. Since the codes for different letters differ in length, one needs to specify a reference word. A commonly-used reference word is "PARIS".

For the purposes of WPM measurement a word is standardized to five characters or keystrokes. So, "fifth" counts as one word, but "fifteenth" counts as two.

The benefits of a standardized measurement of input speed are that it enables comparison across language and hardware boundaries. The speed of an Afrikaans-speaking operator in Cape Town can be compared with a French-speaking operator in Brussels.

Someone having minor experience with keyboards can reach 50 words per minute, an typist reaches about 80 to 95 (usually the minimum required for dispatch positions and other typing jobs), while advanced typists work at speeds above 120. As of 2005, Barbara Blackburn is the fastest typist in the world, according to The Guinness Book of World Records. Using the Dvorak Simplified Keyboard, she has maintained 150 wpm for 50 minutes, 170 wpm for shorter periods of time, and has been clocked at a peak speed of 212 wpm. Blackburn failed her typing class in high school, first encountered the Dvorak keyboard in 1938, quickly learned to achieve very high speeds, and occasionally toured giving speed-typing demonstrations during her secretarial career.

Using a personalized interface, quadriplegic physicist Stephen Hawking managed to type 15 wpm with a switch and adapted software created by Walt Woltosz. Due to a slowdown of his motor skills, his interface was upgraded with an infrared camera that detects eye blinks. Actual wpm are unknown.

A less common form of finding the speed of a typist, the acronym CPM is used to identify the number of characters typed per minute. This measurement is not a common measurement of speed considering the difference between typing in different languages. This is a common measurement for typing programs, or typing tutors, as it can give a more accurate measure of a person`s typing speed without having to type for a prolonged period of time. Also used occasionally for associating the speed of a reader with the amount they have read.

This is also a measurement that can be associated with older models of printers, but this is often not the case. The most common term associated with the speed of printers today is PPM (pages per minute).

Ten Key

10 key speed is a measure of ones ability to manipulate the numeric keypad found on most keyboards. It is used to measure speed for jobs such as data entry of number information on items such as bills and checks. It is measured in `Keystrokes per hour`, or KPH.

Reading

Words per minute is a common metric for assessing reading speed. It is often used in the context of remedial skills evaluation. It is also used in the context of speed reading, where it is a controversial measure of reading performance.

A word in this context is the same as in the context of speech.

Educated adults read at 200-350 wpm, at best 400 wpm for full comprehension. Research has shown that speed reading at 600 wpm can achieve about 70% comprehension, and 50% comprehension at 1000 wpm.

Speech

Books on tape are 150-175 words per minute, slide presentations tend to be closer to 100 wpm. Conversations are around 200 wpm, and although research by Ronald Carver has demonstrated that while adults can listen with full comprehension at 300 wpm, even auctioneers can only speak at about 250 wpm.

The speed of rapping is usually measured in syllables per second or minute. The fastest rapper in the world is MC Ricky Brown, whose record of 723 syllables in 51.27 seconds (14.1 syllables per second) is in the Guinness Book of Records called the "Rip-Rap-Rippety-Roo"

See also

  • Touch typing
  • Speed reading

External links

  • American Radio Relay League
  • Radio Society of Great Britain
  • Baud rates in WPM
  • Radio operator training during WW2
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Words_per_minute" Categories: Articles lacking sources from November 2006 | All articles lacking sources | Articles with unsourced statements | Typing | Input/Output
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The Great White Yacht - By Rick Beneteau

 

My intention was to write this article with a fairly clear idea of what I wanted to express. But you know what they say about intentions ? at least good ones?:-)

I came out to my balcony with laptop in tow and I started typing. However, the impressive powerboats and mammoth lake and ocean freighters passing by against the magnificent backdrop of the downtown Detroit skyline soon had my full attention.

I chose to live here just because of this million dollar view, and I work out here in my ?second office? almost every day, so why would I be so distracted this particular time?

The answer didn?t take long to appear. Coming into view a foot at a time was this sleek, bright white yacht with blacked-out windows. It slowly cruised by, as if to say ?watch me!? She was indeed a thing of beauty, all 120 or so feet of her. The ultimate physical statement of success and achievement!

Suddenly, my pre-conceived notion of how this article was going to unfold simply flew away, just like the flocks of roosting seagulls do as I approach them on my morning walk along the river?s edge.

I began to wonder exactly who owned this stunning ship and how he or she ?attracted? it into their life. No doubt the owner was taking several weeks off, or perhaps even the entire summer, to cruise the Great Lakes. Or even better, this yacht set to sea in the Caribbean, headed up the Atlantic seaboard entered the St. Lawrence Seaway and sailed down through Lake Ontario and Lake Erie to pass by my balcony - to inspire me!

A lingering look through powerful binoculars made this ultimate status symbol all the more beautiful!

I returned to reality, wondering who the owner could be.

One thing I can assure you is that someone created a lot of wealth in order to be able to navigate this vessel past my building at this most appropriate time!

You might be thinking that this came from inherited money and you could be right. The point remains, however, that one person, at one time, with a single idea, put into motion ?the seed? that attracted all the money required to float this multi-million dollar ship down the Detroit River. Let?s examine this.

For the sake of argument, let?s assume that our ?captain? here is also a captain in the entrepreneurial world. He or she owns or is an integral part of a successful company or corporation.

As is the case with most real success stories, this entrepreneur probably started with only ?the seed? and a shoestring budget. And so, the important question becomes: how did this seed grow into the success it is today?

Ninety-nine-point-nine percent of the answer most likely lies within the title of this article. They ?thought? their way to the top! I can guarantee you that this entrepreneur ?thinks? like the world?s most successful entrepreneurs. He or she thinks ?success thoughts?.

Are you wondering what success thoughts are?

Success thoughts are simply those powerful and empowering thoughts you think, minute-to-minute, hour-by hour, day-to-day, every day, that set into motion the Universal Law of Attraction ? what you think is what you get! Think success ? achieve success.

Henry Ford thought success thoughts.

Thomas Edison thought success thoughts.

Tony Robbins and Donald Trump think success thoughts, each and every day, as often as they can!

As human beings, we are all subject to slacking off, and no person can honestly remain in totally ?positive mode? every second of every waking hour. However, the simple yet powerful rule is that your thoughts dictate what happens to you, not only in business, but also in your personal life. Think good thoughts ? get good things in return. Think GREAT thoughts ? get GREAT results! Change your belief system ? change your results!

Don?t believe me?

Here?s what Henry Ford had to say on the subject: ?Whether you think you can or whether you think you can`t, you`re right!?

Modern day master motivator Tony Robbins chimes in: ?If you do what you`ve always done, you`ll get what you`ve always gotten.? (this HAS to make sense to you:-)

Famous author, Dr. Joyce Brothers, offers this pearl: ?Success is a state of mind. If you want success, start thinking of yourself as a success.?

The Reverend Robert Schuller says: ?The only place where your dream becomes impossible is in your own thinking.? Donald Trump has it: ?If you`re going to be thinking, you may as well think big.?

I wouldn?t dare put myself into the same category as the above icons but I can tell you in no uncertain terms that EVERY time I have reaped the financial benefits and personal satisfaction from having a project become successful, I WAS thinking the ?right stuff?!

Reflecting back on my entrepreneurial path, I can see that almost every time a project failed, I was not ?in-tune? with the universe nor was I ?thinking success thoughts?. I was thinking limiting, negative thoughts, such as how much money I was spending developing the project or how much time was being spent to complete it or worse, visualizing it as a failure, which is exactly what it became!

This is no coincidence. It?s a Universal Law. Change your thinking ? change your results!

Even The Bible says it?s so: ?As a man thinks in his heart, so is he. [Proverbs 23:7]?

So, the burning question becomes: ?Can YOU Think Your Way to the Top!??

And here?s the real answer: ?YES, You CAN Think Your Way to the Top by thinking the very same success thoughts as the world?s most successful entrepreneurs!?

Let me leave you with the chorus lyrics of a song I co-wrote called ?I Will? with the hope they will begin to get you thinking the right stuff!:

I Will because I can

I?ll Do cause I believe

The strength I need to make the change

Is deep inside of me

I?ll Walk where I have crawled

I will Run til I can fly

My wings will fill my dreams will soar

The moment that I say I Will

Here?s to seeing You at the Top!

? Rick Beneteau


Rick is co-creator of the breakthrough Make Every Day A Great Day Program. Read the powerful, life-changing testimonials and discover how this revolutionary product can dramatically change Your Life too!:

http://www.MakeEveryDayAGreatDay.com/yes


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